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The specifications are usually targeted to achieve:

  • Maximised rack expansion capabilities

  • Elimination of hot spots

  • Maximised technical floor space = use of maximum possible floor space for IT, corridor space utilisation



The specifications are usually targeted to achieve:

  • A high efficiency cooling system with closed heat or cool zones

  • Good control of environmental parameters

  • Fast IT expansion requiring lower investment in the air conditioning environment



The specifications are usually targeted to achieve:

  • A high efficiency cooling system

  • Perfect redundancy

  • Fast and simple expansion

  • Low initial deployment costs for the investment

LOW Density - a value ranging from 5 to 10 kW/per rack

MEDIUM Density - a value ranging from 10 to 20 kW/per rack

HIGH density - a value ranging from 20 to 25 kW and more/per rack

The breakdown is by the types of heat loads generated by the IT equipment on the racks. The principles are straightforward and are based on the cooling technology used for the racks and the IT equipment.

Heat load breakdown




Type of Air Conditioning

Precision air conditioning

Klimatyzacja prezycyjna
specyfikacja klimatyzacji serwera
podział klimatyzacji serwera ze względu na obciążenia cieplne

Airflow from the technical floor is the most common method of supplying cooling air - both in the open cold corridor system where the server rack cabinet with IT equipment heat output reaches around 2.5 - 5 kW/cabinet. However, when the power starts to increase, specific air circulation is required with clear indication of the heat collection point from the zone, e.g., suspended ceiling or hot corridor.


Hence, an increasingly common method that is deployed is closing a cold corridor and creating a buffer of the accumulated cold in the given area. This is, of course, a functionality that is required for high density IT cabinets but closing of the cold zone alone is used with lower density cabinets.


This is mainly down to certain air circulation guidelines and the heat load of IT cabinets. This requires alternative airflow management solutions, raised floor system or U (unit) filler panels to seal the rack cabinet. This does not change the fact that room-based air-conditioning is realistically capable of supplying around 5-6 kW for cooling (if no additional ventilator is used) per 600 x 600 mm ventilation grille piece.


We are increasingly installing in-row air-conditioning systems based on air-conditioners fitted directly in line with the IT cabinets and closing cold corridors to create a large buffer of cold air available for the IT equipment.  Such systems are usually very compact (only 30 cm) and are capable of supplying up to 30 kW of cooling from one air-conditioning cabinet. The initial power starts from under 5 kW from the in-row air-conditioner. An advantage of such a system is an increasingly lower price in relation to cabinets with air ducted under the technical floor and in this case a technical floor is not even required (the piping can run from the top of the air-conditioner).

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